Cytosolic DNA induces type I interferons and other cytokines that are important for antimicrobial defense but can also result in autoimmunity. This DNA signaling pathway requires the adaptor protein STING and the transcription factor IRF3, but the mechanism of DNA sensing is unclear. We found that mammalian cytosolic extracts synthesized cyclic guanosine monophosphate- adenosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP-AMP, or cGAMP) in vitro from adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate in the presence of DNA but not RNA. DNA transfection or DNA virus infection of mammalian cells also triggered cGAMP production. cGAMP bound to STING, leading to the activation of IRF3 and induction of interferon-β. Thus, cGAMP in metazoans and functions as an endogenous second messenger that triggers interferon production in response to cytosolic DNA.
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