BACKGROUND: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), commonly described in AIDS patients, is a unique subset of lymphoma in which the neoplastic lymphocytes proliferate exclusively in serous cavities. CASE: A 27-year-old male, HIV positive for five years and with multiple opportunistic infections in the past, was admitted for sudden-onset shortness of breath caused by a pleural effusion. Cytologic examination of the pleural fluid revealed medium to large atypical lymphocytes with a high mitosis rate, suspicious for lymphoma. Further diagnostic tests, such as immunophenotypic analysis and cytogenetic and molecular studies, confirmed the diagnosis of PEL. CONCLUSION: Cytopathologists and cytotechnologists should be aware of this new entity since additional studies are required for a definitive diagnosis.
- AIDS-associated lymphoma
- Burkitt's translocation
- Primary effusion lymphoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine