To better understand the development of hydrocephalus of different origins, we evaluated cytokine and growth factor concentration in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with hydrocephalus. CSF was collected from patients developing hydrocephalus following hemorrhage (n = 15), patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (n = 10), and following the embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (n = 9). Myelography patients (n = 15) served as controls. Quantification of 11 molecules relating angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing in the CSF was performed using ELISA. All three hydrocephalus groups had decreased concentration of TIMP-4 compared to the normal group. The hemorrhage group showed increased concentration of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 compared to the control group. The unruptured aneurysm group had increased concentration of IL-6 and decreased concentration of TIMP-2 compared to the control group. Compared to the normal patients, increased concentrations of wound healing molecules were evident in all three groups. Increased inflammation was evident in the hemorrhage and unruptured aneurysm groups.
- Growth factors
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience