We previously reported that ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg3, dammarane glycosides, of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae), significantly attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cortical cells. To seek more potent neuroprotective compounds, we attempted to modify the chemical structure of dammarane glycosides and obtained six derivatives, MA-11, PT-11, PT-111, POA-101, POA-111 and N-001. The neuroprotective activity of these dammarane derivatives were evaluated employing primary cultures of rat corticoid cells. The glutamate-induced neuronal cell damage was significantly reduced by a pre-treatment with protopanaxadiol, MA-11 or PT-11 at concentrations ranging from 100 nM to 10 μM. Both MA-11 and PT-11, preserved the levels of catalase and inhibited decreases in glutathione reductase in glutamate-injured cells. Furthermore, the dammarane derivatives reduced the content of intracellular peroxide in glutamate-intoxicated cells. Finally, they inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde, a compound produced during lipid peroxidation, in glutamate-insulted cells. These results show that the dammarane derivatives, MA-11 and PT-11, exert significant neuroprotective effects on cultured cortical cells by a mechanism seemingly distinct from that afforded by ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg3. As such, the dammarane derivatives may be efficacious in protecting neurons from oxidative damage caused by exposure to excess glutamate.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science