Background: P-selectin inhibition with protein therapeutics such as antibodies or soluble ligands given intravenously can decrease thrombosis in a mouse ligation model of venous thrombosis. In this study, we hypothesized that oral inhibition of P selectin with a novel oral nonprotein inhibitor (PSI-697) would decrease thrombosis and circulating microparticle populations. This study evaluated the effects on thrombosis and circulating microparticle populations in this murine venous thrombosis model. Methods: Mice underwent inferior vena cava ligation to induce thrombosis. Mice with high circulating level of P selectin, Delta Cytoplasmic Tail (^CT), mice gene-deleted for both E- and P-selectin knockout (EPKO), and wild-type C57BL/6 mice (WT) were studied without and with administration of PSI-697 in food (100 mg/kg daily) from 2 days before thrombosis until the end of the study. Animals were killed 2 and 6 days later. Evaluations included thrombus weight (TW), vein wall morphometrics, microparticle quantification by using fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, and vein wall enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for interleukin (IL)-10, P selectin, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. Results: PSI-697 significantly decreased TW in WT and ^CT mice, with a treated vs nontreated TW of 132 ± 24 vs 228 ± 29 × 10-4 g (P = .014) and 166 ± 19 vs 281 ± 16 × 10-4 g (P = .001), respectively. At day 6, the effect was significant only in the ^CT group (P < .05). Drug therapy at day 2 significantly increased vein wall monocytes in WT mice and increased monocytes and total inflammatory cells in ^CT animals. A significant decrease in neutrophils and total inflammatory cells was seen in EPKO mice at day 2 with therapy. Therapy significantly increased platelet-derived microparticles and total microparticles in ^CT mice on day 2. Changes in treated WT and treated EPKO animals were not significant compared with respective vehicle treatments at day 2. On day 6, therapy significantly decreased total microparticles in EPKO animals. Vein wall expression of IL-10 increased in all groups with therapy at day 2 (n = 18) and was significantly increased in WT (2687.5 ± 903 pg/mL vs 636 ± 108 pg/mL total protein; P = .038) and ^CT (2078 ± 295 pg/mL vs 432 ± 62 pg/mL total protein; P = .001) mice. Therapy significantly decreased vein wall P selectin, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and IL-10 levels at day 6. Conclusions: PSI-697 decreased thrombosis. P-selectin inhibition allowed vein wall inflammatory cell extravasation in this model of complete ligation. Circulating microparticles (platelet-derived microparticles and total microparticles) increased with P-selectin inhibition, possibly because of decreased consumption into the thrombus. In summary, the oral administration of an inhibitor to P selectin provides significant TW reduction. Clinical Relevance: Deep venous thrombosis is a significant national health problem in the general population. The average annual incidence of deep venous thrombosis is approximately 250,000 cases per year. The selectin family of adhesion molecules is thought to be largely responsible for the initial attachment and rolling of leukocytes on stimulated vascular endothelium. Recent studies have explored the possible therapeutic implications of P-selectin inhibition to modulate venous thrombosis. For example, prophylactic dosing of a recombinant P-selectin ligand decreases venous thrombosis in a dose-dependent fashion in both feline and nonhuman primate animal models. Additionally, treatment of 2-day iliac thrombi with a recombinant protein, P-selectin inhibitor, significantly improves vein reopening in nonhuman primates. It is interesting to note that P-selectin inhibition decreases thrombosis without adverse anticoagulation. On the basis of the results from these previous studies, the use of P-selectin antagonism is a logical therapeutic approach to treat venous thrombosis. All inhibitors developed to date are either proteins or small molecules with low oral bioavailability that require intravenous or subcutaneous injection. This study evaluates, for the first time, a novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of P-selectin (PSI-697).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine