Dystonia is a heterogeneous movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles producing abnormal postures. Dystonia can be focal, multifocal, segmental or generalized. Botulinum toxin injections are generally effective in treating focal dystonia. Oral medications can be effective in attenuating generalized and segmental dystonia, but have limitations. Generalized dystonia, however, is more often refractory to available medical therapies. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been established as an effective intervention to treat patients with dystonia refractory to medical therapy. This chapter describes the current accepted classification scheme for diagnosing dystonia, specific considerations for the phenomenology, etiology and treatment, and reviews the current literature evidence supporting the use of DBS in a variety of dystonia syndromes; it also provides general consideration for patient selection and recommendations for approach to programming DBS for the treatment of dystonia.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Deep Brain Stimulation|
|Publisher||Nova Science Publishers, Inc.|
|Number of pages||26|
|ISBN (Print)||9781634832878, 9781634832823|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 1 2015|
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