Background: Depression, metabolic syndrome, and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are known to increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The association among these factors in a generally healthy, active population with access to health care is not well defined. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected on 5,125 women and men during preventive care examinations at the Cooper Clinic from 2000 to 2008. The main outcome measures were depressive symptoms as assessed by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale short form (CES-D-10) questionnaire, presence or absence of metabolic syndrome, and CRF as measured by a maximal exercise treadmill test. Results: Women and men who exhibited depressive symptoms had a statistically higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to those who did not (for women, 15.4% versus 7.2%, P<0.0001; for men, 31.6% versus 22.8%, P<0.0001). Individuals with depressive symptoms had an increased frequency of higher waist circumference, higher triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein. Women with depressive symptoms also had marginally higher fasting blood glucose levels. After adjusting for age and smoking status, the odds of metabolic syndrome in women with depressive symptoms was 2.81 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.01-3.93] times the odds of metabolic syndrome in those without depressive symptoms, and in men with depressive symptoms, the odds were 1.69 (95% CI, 1.42-2.00) times the odds of metabolic syndrome in men without. When controlled for CRF level, the presence or absence of depressive symptoms on the presence of metabolic syndrome is attenuated but remains statistically significant in women. Conclusion: Even in a generally healthy population with access to health care, the presence of depressive symptoms was associated with increased metabolic syndrome.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism