Design, synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of triazine dendrimers bearing paclitaxel using ester and ester/disulfide linkages

Jongdoo Lim, Abdellatif Chouai, Su Tang Lo, Wei Liu, Xiankai Sun, Eric E. Simanek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Scopus citations

Abstract

The design, synthesis, characterization, and preliminary biological assessment of three dendrimers are reported. All three dendrimers, 1-3, present twelve paclitaxel groups linked by acylation of the 2′-hydroxyl group. The linker for dendrimers 2 and 3 also includes a disulfide. Installation of the paclitaxel group relies on reacting twelve primary amines of a second generation triazine dendrimer, a scaffold available on kilogram scale, with a dichlorotriazine bearing the drug. This dichlorotriazine is available in four steps by (i) reacting paclitaxel with glutaric anhydride, (ii) activating with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), (iii) treating the resulting ester with either 1,3-diaminopropane (for 1) or cystamine (for 2 and 3), and (iv), finally, reacting with cyanuric chloride. After reaction with the dendrimer, the resulting monochlorotriazine groups are reacted with 4-aminomethylpiperidine (AMP) and then a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) group of molecular weight 2 kDa. Two different PEG-NHS esters are employed that differ in lability. For 1 and 2, the PEG incorporates an ester-linked succinic acid group. For 3, the PEG incorporates an ether-linked acetic acid group. Both mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy prove valuable for determining the final ratios of dendrimer:paclitaxel:AMP:PEG. These values are typically 1:12:12:9. Cytotoxicity of these constructs using an MTT-based assay and PC-3 cells reveals IC50 values in the low nanomolar range with dithiothreitol and glutathione enhancing the toxicity of the disulfide-containing constructs 2 and 3. Preliminary toxicology assessment of 1 suggests that it is well tolerated in vivo with preferential renal clearance. The elimination half-lives of all of the dendrimers appear shorter than predicted from the previous results. Tumor localization is observed for all the three dendrimers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2154-2161
Number of pages8
JournalBioconjugate Chemistry
Volume20
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 18 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Organic Chemistry

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