Purpose We retrospectively analyzed the validity of a simple method of detecting absorptive hypercalciuria type I, a common stone forming condition with hypercalciuria that is believed to be due to high intestinal calcium absorption. The method is based on urinary calcium derived from 24-hour urine collections while on random and restricted diets rather than on a calciuric response to an oral calcium load. Materials and Methods A group of 916 well characterized patients with idiopathic calcium oxalate urolithiasis comprised the study group. We also analyzed a subgroup of 695 patients, excluding 221 with dietary abuse, defined as urinary sodium greater than 150 mEq daily and/or sulfate greater than 35 mmol daily, to eliminate potential confounding dietary factors affecting the diagnosis. In each group absorptive hypercalciuria type I was detected by the old criteria, requiring an exaggerated calciuric response to an oral calcium load test, and by the new criteria, based on 24-hour urinary calcium 200 mg or greater daily while on random and restricted diets. Results Using the old criteria as the gold standard the positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity of the new criteria were 80.1%, 95.9%, 90.8% and 90.5%, respectively. When excluding patients with dietary abuse the values were 85.9%, 97.2%, 92.4% and 94.5%, respectively. Conclusions Absorptive hypercalciuria type I may be reliably detected by a simple method based on high 24-hour urinary calcium while on random and restricted diets, especially when excluding patients with evidence of dietary abuse during the restricted diet.
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