The aim of the study was to assess whether 11C-choline PET/CT could identify high-risk primary adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods: 11C-choline PET/CT and transpelvic MRI were performed in 14 patients with untreated localized primary adenocarcinoma of the prostate, followed by radical prostatectomy as a form of primary monotherapy within 14 d of in vivo imaging. To allow accurate coregistration of whole-mount histology with in vivo imaging, additional ex vivo MR images of the prostatectomy specimen were obtained. Nonlinear 3-dimensional image deformations were used for registrations of PET/CT, MRI, and histology. Volumes of interest from tumor and benign tissue were defined on the basis of histology and were transferred into coregistered 11C-choline PET/CT volumes to calculate the mean (T (mean)/B) and maximum (T(max)/B) ratio of tumor to benign prostate background. On the basis of MIB-1/Ki-67 expression in tumor tissues represented on a tissue microarray, we assessed whether 11C-choline uptake correlated with local Gleason score and tumor proliferation. Results: Histology confirmed 42 tumor nodules with Gleason scores between 3 1 2 and 4 1 4, with volumes ranging from 0.03 to 12.6 cm3. T(mean)/B (P < 0.01) and. T(max)/B (P < 0.001) ratios were significantly increased in high-Gleason score (≥4 + 3) lesions versus 3 + 4 and lower disease but failed to distinguish between 3 + 4 disease versus 3 + 3 and lower. T(mean)/B and T(max)/B ratios were significantly increased in tumors with an MIB-1/Ki-67 labeling index greater than or equal to 5% (P < 0.01). Conclusion: On the basis of our preliminary data using ratios of tumor to benign prostate background, 11C-choline preferentially identified aggressive primary prostate cancer.
- Image fusion
- Primary prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging