Lactate is an important metabolite in normal and malignant tissues detectable by NMR spectroscopy; however, it has been difficult to clinically detect the lactate methyl resonance because it is obscured by lipid resonances. The selective homonuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer technique offers a method for distinguishing lipid and lactate resonances. We implemented a three-dimensional selective homonuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer version with Hadamard slice selection and two-dimensional phase encoding (Hadamard encoded-selective homonuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer-chemical shift imaging) on a conventional clinical MR scanner. Hadamard slice selection is explained and demonstrated in vivo. This is followed by 1-cm3 resolution lactate imaging with detection to 5-mM concentration in 20 min on a 3-T clinical scanner. An analysis of QSel gradient duration and amplitude effects on lactate and lipid signal is presented. To demonstrate clinical feasibility, a 5-min lactate scan of a patient with a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the superficial thigh is reported. The elevated lactate signal coincides with the T2-weighted image of this tumor. As a test of selective homonuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer sensitivity, a thigh tourniquet was applied to a normal volunteer and an increase in lactate was detected immediately after tourniquet flow constriction. In conclusion, the Hadamard encoded-selective homonuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer-chemical shift imaging sequence is demonstrated on a phantom and in two lipid-rich, clinically relevant, in vivo conditions.
- Blood flow occlusion
- Hadamard encoding
- Lactate imaging
- Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging