Galanin is widely distributed in enteric nerve terminals and acts to modulate intestinal motility by altering smooth muscle contraction. This ligand causes Cl- secretion when colonic epithelial cells express the galanin-1 receptor (Gal1-R) subtype. Because Gal1-R expression by colonic epithelia is upregulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF- κB), increasingly appreciated as critical in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease, we wondered whether the diarrhea associated with this condition could be due to NF-κB-mediated increases in Gal1-R expression. To test this hypothesis, we provided oral dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to C57BL/6J mice. Although Gal1-R are not normally expressed by epithelial cells lining the mouse colon, DSS treatment resulted in increased NF-κB activation and Gal1-R expression. Whereas galanin had no effect on murine colonic tissues studied ex vivo, it progressively increased short- circuit current and colonic fluid secretion in DSS-treated mice. Concomitant parenteral administration of the NF-κB inhibitor dexamethasone attenuated the activation of this transcription factor by DSS, inhibiting the increase in Gal1-R expression. Although Gal1-R-specific antagonists do not exist, intracolonic administration of commercially available galanin antibody diminished the DSS-induced increase in colonic fluid accumulation. Overall, these data demonstrate that a significant component of the excessive fluid secretion observed in DSS-treated mice is due to increased Gal1-R expression.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology|
|Issue number||5 41-5|
|State||Published - May 2000|
- Inflammatory bowel disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)