Tuberous sclerosis complex is a dominantly inherited disorder affecting multiple organs; because of its phenotypic variability the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex can be difficult in the young or in individuals with subtle findings. Recently revised consensus diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis complex reflect an improved understanding of its clinical manifestations and its genetic and molecular mechanisms. The diagnostic criteria are based on the premise that there are probably no truly pathognomonic clinical signs for tuberous sclerosis complex; signs that were once regarded as specific occur as isolated findings in individuals with no other clinical or genetic evidence of tuberous sclerosis complex. Consequently, the revised criteria require tuberous sclerosis complex-associated lesions of two or more organ systems or at least two dissimilar lesions of the same organ to confirm the diagnosis. The addition of DNA testing complements clinical diagnosis and allows more precise genetic counseling and, in some individuals, prenatal diagnosis. Nevertheless, the 15% false-negative rate for DNA testing and the occurrence of germline mosaicism in about 2% of individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex make it difficult to exclude the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex in family members.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Clinical Neurology