TLR activation on dendritic cells (DCs) induces DC maturation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, both of which are important for activation and differentiation of CD4 T cells. The importance of TLR activation on DCs for CD8 T cell responses is less clear. In this study, we tested the ability of different TLRs to regulate CD8 T cell responses to pathogens. We found that although all TLRs are able to induce CD8 T cell activation in vitro, there are profound differences in their ability to activate CD8 T cells in vivo. The nucleic acid recognizing endosomal TLRs, TLR3 and TLR9, had a potent ability to induce CD8 T cell activation. However, the surface TLRs, TLR2 and TLR4, that recognize bacterial ligands were not only incapable of inducing CD8 T cell priming, but they had a dominant effect of inhibiting CD8 T cell expansion induced by activation of endosomal TLRs.We found that TLR2 and TLR4, acting in a MyD88-dependent manner, influenced CD8 T cell priming by altering the composition of DCs in the draining lymph nodes. Our results have important implications for combined bacterial and viral infections and suggest that bacterial infections could constrain the ability of the host to mount effective antiviral CD8 T cell immunity. The Journal of Immunology, 2014, 192: 4303-4315.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy