Newell and Vaillancourt (2001) hypothesized that the dimensionality of motor behavior is a function of the level of task performance and the task dynamic. The present study examined high (in-phase), moderate (antiphase) and low (45°, 90°, and 135° relative phase) levels of task performance in bimanual coordination. Estimates of dimensionality were calculated for the component (effector movements), coupling of components (coupling of effectors), and task output (the produced relative phase) levels of analysis. The in-phase coordination mode had lower Approximate Entropy within, and lower Cross-Approximate Entropy between, effector movements than all other modes. The in-phase mode had higher relative phase Approximate Entropy than all other modes. These findings indicate lower effector and coupling dimensionality, and higher relative phase dimensionality, in the in-phase mode. These results support the hypothesis that at the levels of analysis with limit-cycle dynamics high levels of task performance are characterized by lower dimensionality than lower levels of performance. The results also support the hypothesis that high task performance of the fixed-point task goal of maintaining a constant relative phase is characterized by higher dimensionality than low level performance. Together, these findings support and generalize the Newell and Vaillancourt hypothesis to the component, coupling, and task output levels of analysis.
- Bimanual coordination
- Degrees of freedom
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology