OBJECTIVE: Evaluate differences in clinical testing following concussion between adolescents with no history of learning disorder (LD) and those with a history of dyslexia and/or ADD/ADHD. BACKGROUND: Learning disorders, such as ADHD, can affect ImPACT® baseline neurocognitive testing. The effect that ADHD has on other clinical measures is less well understood. Additionally, limited data exists on the effect of dyslexia on these measures. DESIGN/METHODS: Data were prospectively collected from participants enrolled in the North Texas Concussion Registry (ConTex). Participants ages 10-18 years old, diagnosed with a concussion sustained within 30 days of enrollment were included and assessed for self-reported history of LD type (dyslexia and/or ADD/ADHD). Clinical findings examined included symptom scores (derived from SCAT5™), ImPACT®, King-Devick (KD) test, patient health questionnaire 8(PHQ-8) scores, and generalized anxiety disorder 7(GAD-7) scores. Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare groups. RESULTS: In total, 1,298 participants were included: 58 with dyslexia, 158 with ADD/ADHD, 35 with both (dyslexia and ADD/ADHD), and 1,047 with no LD. There was no difference in age, sex, time since injury, or history of concussion apart from the ADD/ADHD group, which had more males (p < 0.001). The dyslexia group had slower mean KD time (p = 0.011) and increased error scores (p = 0.028). In those with ADD/ADHD, impulse control scores on ImPACT® were significantly higher (p = 0.007), but no other ImPACT® score differences reached significance. PHQ-8 and GAD-7 scores were significantly higher in those with ADD/ADHD (p < 0.001). Participants with both dyslexia and ADHD demonstrated slower KD times (p = 0.009) and had higher PHQ-8 (p < 0.001) and GAD-7 (p = 0.001) scores. CONCLUSIONS: Participants with dyslexia and/or ADD/ADHD had worse scores on commonly used concussion clinical measures including ImPACT® impulse control, KD testing, and depression and anxiety screenings. Understanding the differences in these groups will aid providers in their evaluation and assist in counseling families regarding the injury.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - Nov 17 2020|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology