Dosimetric dependences of bone heterogeneity and beam angle on the unflattened and flattened photon beams: A Monte Carlo comparison

James C.L. Chow, Amir M. Owrangi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

The variations of depth and surface dose on the bone heterogeneity and beam angle were compared between unflattened and flattened photon beams using Monte Carlo simulations. Phase-space files of the 6MV photon beams with field size of 10×10cm2 were generated with and without the flattening filter based on a Varian TrueBeam linac. Depth and surface doses were calculated in a bone and water phantoms using Monte Carlo simulations (the EGSnrc-based code). Dose calculations were repeated with angles of the unflattened and flattened beams turned from 0° to 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° and 90° in the bone and water phantoms. Monte Carlo results of depth doses showed that compared to the flattened beam the unflattened photon beam had a higher dose in the build-up region but lower dose beyond the depth of maximum dose. Dose ratios of the unflattened to flattened beams were calculated in the range of 1.6-2.6 with beam angle varying from 0° to 90° in water. Similar results were found in the bone phantom. In addition, higher surface doses of about 2.5 times were found with beam angles equal to 0° and 15° in the bone and water phantoms. However, surface dose deviation between the unflattened and flattened beams became smaller with increasing beam angle. Dose enhancements due to the bone backscatter were also found at the water-bone and bone-water interfaces for both the unflattened and flattened beams in the bone phantom. With Monte Carlo beams cross-calibrated to the monitor unit in simulations, variations of depth and surface dose on the bone heterogeneity and beam angle were investigated and compared using Monte Carlo simulations. For the unflattened and flattened photon beams, the surface dose and range of depth dose ratios (unflattened to flattened beam) decreased with increasing beam angle. The dosimetric comparison in this study is useful in understanding the characteristics of unflattened photon beam on the depth and surface dose with bone heterogeneity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)46-52
Number of pages7
JournalRadiation Physics and Chemistry
Volume101
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2014

Keywords

  • Beam obliquity
  • Bone heterogeneity
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • Surface dose
  • Unflattened photon beam

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation

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