The effects of dynamic cardiomyoplasty (CMP) on global and regional left ventricular (LV) function in end-stage heart failure still remain unclear. MRI with tissue-tagging is a novel tool for studying intramyocardial motion and mechanics. To date, no studies have attempted to use MRI to simultaneously study global and regional cardiac function in a model of CMP. In this study, we used MRI with tissue-tagging and a custom designed MR compatible muscle stimulating/pressure monitoring system to assess long axis regional strain and displacement variations, as well as changes in global LV function in a model of dynamic cardiomyoplasty. Three dogs underwent rapid ventricular pacing (RVP; 215 BPM) for 10 weeks; after 4 weeks of RVP, a left posterior CMP was performed. After 1 year of dynamic muscle stimulation, the dogs were imaged in a 1.5 T clinical MR scanner. Unstimulated and muscle stimulated tagged long axis images were acquired. Quantitative 2-D regional image analysis was performed by dividing the hearts into three regions: apical, septal, and lateral. Maximum and minimum principal strains (λ1 and λ2) and displacement (D) were determined and pooled for each region. MR LV pressure-volume (PV) loops were also generated. Muscle stimulation produced a leftward shift of the PV loops in two of the three dogs, and an increase in the peak LV pressure, while stroke volume remained unchanged. With stimulation, λ1 decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the lateral region, whereas λ2 increased significantly (p<0.05) in both the lateral and apical regions, indicating a decrease in strain resulting from stimulation. D only increased significantly (p<0.05) in the apical region. The decrease in strain between unassisted and assisted states indicates the heart is performing less work, while maintaining stroke volume and increasing peak LV pressure. These findings demonstrate that the muscle wrap functions as an active assist, decreasing the workload of the heart, while preserving total pump performance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering