The incidence and mortality associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed in patients under the age of 50 have been steadily increasing. The exact etiology of these epidemiologic trends is unclear. This chapter will provide a comprehensive review on the topic of early age onset colorectal cancer (EAO-CRC), defined as colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed in patients under the age of 50. Topics reviewed will include the epidemiology of EAO-CRC around the world, clinical and pathological features of EAO-CRC in contrast to later age onset CRC (CRC diagnosed on those over the age of 50) and the observed molecular and somatic characteristics. This chapter will review the etiologies to EAO-CRC and the established, as well as proposed risk factors for disease. Evidence-based approaches to prevention, early detection, treatment and survivorship will be presented.