BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common after kidney transplantation, with limited data to guide antibiotic prophylaxis. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study comparing sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim 800/160 mg (SMZ/TMP) daily for 30 days followed by Monday, Wednesday, Friday for an additional 5 months (Group 1) versus SMZ/TMP Monday, Wednesday, Friday for 6 months plus ciprofloxacin 250 mg twice daily for 30 days (Group 2) on UTI incidence after kidney transplantation. RESULTS: There were 106 and 130 patients in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Demographics and transplant characteristics were well matched, except for more patients in Group 2 on corticosteroid maintenance. At 1 year, more patients in Group 1 developed UTIs (23.6% vs. 10.8%; P=0.01) and the mean time to first UTI was shorter (96.6±79.5 vs. 168±89.7 days; P=0.01). UTIs caused by Enterococcus species were higher in Group 2 (28.6% vs. 4%; P=0.047) with enteric gram-negative bacilli accounting for the remaining infections. There was a similar incidence of enteric gram-negative antibiotic resistance to SMZ/TMP (75% vs. 80%; P=1.00) and ciprofloxacin (16.7% vs. 30%; P=0.39) in Groups 1 and 2. For Groups 1 and 2, the proportion of first UTIs requiring hospitalization was 48.9% vs. 40.6%, respectively (P=0.62). Female gender was a UTI risk factor (hazard ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.78-6.8; P=0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of a 30-day course of ciprofloxacin lowered the incidence of UTI; randomized prospective studies are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of this approach.
- Kidney transplant
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