Limited information exists regarding the outcomes of newer percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) technologies in women. This study sought to determine whether female gender is an independent risk factor for PCI mortality and/or complications in contemporary practice. Using information from the National Cardiovascular Network (NCN) Database on 109,708 (33% women) PCI cases from 22 hospitals between January 1994 and January 1998, we examined the association of gender with unadjusted and risk-adjusted procedural outcomes. Women undergoing PCI were older, smaller, and had more comorbid illness than men, but less extensive coronary disease. Temporal trends in PCI device selection were similar in men and women. Compared with men, women had higher unadjusted procedural mortality rates (1.8% vs 1.0%, p <0.001), more strokes (0.4% vs 0.2%, p <0.001), and higher vascular complication rates (5.4% vs 2.7%, p <0.001). However, after adjusting for baseline clinical risk factors, and importantly, body surface area, women and men had similar PCI mortality risks (adjusted odds ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.24). Gender was not an independent risk factor for mortality among subgroups receiving coronary stent or atherectomy devices after risk adjustment. However, women undergoing PCI remained at higher risk for stroke, vascular complications, and repeat in-hospital revascularization than men, even after risk adjustment. We conclude that in contemporary practice, a patient's body size rather than gender, conveys independent risk for mortality after PCI.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine