The effect of hydrochlorothiazide on the formation of renal stones was evaluated by quantitative assessment of the propensity of urine to undergo crystallization of calcium oxalate. In seven patients with calcium urolithiasis (three with absorptive hypercalciuria, one with renal hypercalciuria, and three with normocalciuric nephrolithiasis), the urinary activity product ratio and formation product ratio of calcium oxalate were measured both on and off therapy with hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg orally twice a day). The activity product ratio (state of saturation with respect to calcium oxalate) decreased in the majority of cases, primarily as a result of the fall in urinary calcium. The formation product ratio (limit of metastability) increased in all cases; the cause of the increase was not readily apparent. Both changes reduced the propensity of urine to undergo crystallization of calcium oxalate, and therefore may account for the clinical improvement reported during thiazide therapy in nephrolithiasis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism