Effect of low versus high dialysate sodium concentration on blood pressure and endothelial-derived vasoregulators during hemodialysis: A randomized crossover study

Jula K. Inrig, Christopher Molina, Kristin D'Silva, Catherine Kim, Peter Van Buren, Jason D. Allen, Robert Toto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Intradialytic hypertension affects ∼15% of hemodialysis patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. While intradialytic hypertension is associated with increases in endothelin 1 relative to nitric oxide (NO), the cause of these imbalances is unknown. In vitro evidence suggests that altering plasma sodium levels could affect endothelial-derived vasoregulators and blood pressure (BP). Thus, we hypothesized that compared to high dialysate sodium, low dialysate sodium concentration would lower endothelin 1 levels, increase NO release, and reduce BP. Study Design 3-week, 2-arm, randomized, crossover study. Setting & Participants 16 patients with intradialytic hypertension. Intervention Low (5 mEq/L below serum sodium) versus high (5 mEq/L above serum sodium) dialysate sodium concentration. Outcomes Endothelin 1, nitrite (NO2-), and BP. Measurements Mixed linear regression was used to compare the effect of dialysate sodium (low vs high) and randomization arm (low-then-high vs high-then-low) on intradialytic changes in endothelin 1, NO2-, and BP values. Results The average systolic BP throughout all hemodialysis treatments in a given week was lower with low dialysate sodium concentrations compared with treatments with high dialysate sodium concentrations (parameter estimate, -9.9 [95% CI, -13.3 to -6.4] mm Hg; P < 0.001). The average change in systolic BP during hemodialysis also was significantly lower with low vs high dialysate sodium concentrations (parameter estimate, -6.1 [95% CI, -9.0 to -3.2] mm Hg; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in intradialytic levels of endothelin 1 or NO2- with low vs high dialysate sodium concentrations. Limitations Carryover effects limited the power to detect significant changes in endothelial-derived vasoregulators, and future studies will require parallel trial designs. Conclusions Low dialysate sodium concentrations significantly decreased systolic BP and ameliorated intradialytic hypertension. Longer studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of low dialysate sodium concentrations on BP and clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)464-473
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Volume65
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015

Keywords

  • Intradialytic hypertension
  • Mechanisms and Treatment of Intradialytic Hypertension-Sodium (MATCH-NA) Study
  • blood pressure (BP)
  • dialysate sodium concentration
  • end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
  • endothelin 1
  • endothelium
  • hemodialysis
  • nitric oxide
  • nitrite
  • serum sodium concentration
  • sodium gradient
  • vasoregulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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