Effect of meal composition on postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, glucagon, C-peptide, and glucose responses in overweight/obese subjects

Meena Shah, Brian Franklin, Beverley Adams-Huet, Joel Mitchell, Brooke Bouza, Lyn Dart, Melody Phillips

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations


Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone, is released in response to food intake. It is unclear how meals high in protein (HP) and monounsaturated fat (HMF) affect GLP-1 response. Purpose: To examine the effect of a HP versus a HMF meal on GLP-1 response. Methods: Twenty-four overweight/obese participants consumed two meals (HP: 31.9 % energy from protein; HMF: 35.2 % fat and 20.7 % monounsaturated fat) in a random order. Both meals contained the same energy and carbohydrate content. GLP-1, insulin, glucagon, C-peptide, and glucose were assessed from blood drawn in the fasting and postprandial states. The effect of meal condition on hormone and glucose responses and appetite ratings were assessed by repeated measures analysis. Results: Statistically significant (p <0.01) time by meal condition effect was observed on active GLP-1, total GLP-1, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon, but not glucose (p = 0.83). Area under the curve was significantly higher during the HP versus the HMF meal conditions for active GLP-1 (23.7 %; p = 0.0007), total GLP-1 (12.2 %; p <0.0001), insulin (54.4 %; p <0.0001), C-peptide (14.8 %; p <0.0001), and glucagon (40.7 %; p <0.0001). Blood glucose was not different between the HP versus HMF conditions (−4.8 %; p = 0.11). Insulin sensitivity was higher during the HMF versus HP conditions (Matsuda index mean difference: 16.3 %; p = 0.007). Appetite ratings were not different by meal condition. Conclusions: GLP-1 and insulin responses were higher during the HP condition. However, no difference was found in blood glucose between conditions, and insulin sensitivity was higher during the HMF condition, indicating that a HMF meal may be optimal at regulating blood glucose in overweight/obese individuals without type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 12 2016



  • Glucagon-like peptide-1
  • High-monounsaturated fat meal
  • High-protein meal
  • Insulin
  • Meal composition
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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