Despite extensive evidence on the organ protective effects of sevoflurane, its effect on disturbed sleep remains unclear. We hypothesised that sevoflurane preconditioning positively impacts disturbed sleep caused by systemic inflammation. A prospective, randomised laboratory investigation was conducted in C57BL/6J mice. A mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation was employed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on sleep recovery. Symptom recovery was evaluated through electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) and histological studies. The mice were exposed to 2% sevoflurane before and after peritoneal injection of LPS. The EEG and EMG were recorded for 24 h after the procedure. Brain tissue was harvested after the sevoflurane/LPS procedure and was immunostained using individual antibodies against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and Fos. The ChAT-positive and ChAT/Fos double-positive cells were analysed quantitatively in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (PPTg/LDTg). Compared with control mice, mice preconditioned with sevoflurane but not post-conditioned showed a significant increase in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep during EEG recording following the LPS challenge. They also demonstrated a shorter REM latency, indicating an early recovery from LPS-altered sleep. The bouts of REM episodes were retained with sevoflurane preconditioning. More ChAT/Fos double-positive cells were observed in the PPTg/LDTg in the sevoflurane preconditioning plus LPS group than in the LPS-only group. Sevoflurane preconditioning promotes recovery from altered sleep induced by systemic inflammation. Activation of PPTg/LDTg is considered a mechanism underlying sleep reintegration. The recovery phenomenon shows potential for clinical application in cases of sleep disturbances induced by systemic inflammation.
- pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus/laterodorsal tegmental nucleus
- systemic inflammation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cognitive Neuroscience
- Behavioral Neuroscience