Background: There is a paucity of literature exploring the impact of smoking on short-term complications, readmissions, and reoperations after elective upper extremity surgery using a large multicenter national database. We hypothesized that smokers will have an increased rate of complications, readmissions, and reoperations compared with a cohort of nonsmokers undergoing elective upper extremity surgery. Methods: Patient data were collected from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between the years 2012 and 2017. Patients were included if they underwent elective surgery of the upper extremity using 338 predetermined Current Procedural Terminology codes. The data collected were divided into patient demographics, comorbidities, perioperative variables, and 30-day complications. Current smoking status was defined as smoking within 1 year prior to surgery. The incidence of surgical complications, reoperations, and readmissions was compared between the 2 cohorts using multivariable regression analysis. Results: Of the 107 943 patients undergoing elective surgeries of the upper extremity, 73 806 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 57 986 (78.6%) were nonsmokers in the year prior to surgery, and 15 820 (21.4%) were current smokers. Between these groups, current smokers were younger (P <.001), more often men (P <.001), had lower body mass index (P <.001), and more often underwent procedures that involved bone manipulation (P <.001). Multivariate regression analysis defined current smoking as significantly associated with overall surgical site complications, superficial surgical site infections, deep surgical site infections, reoperation, and readmission. Conclusion: Current smoking was significantly associated with an increase in all surgical site complications, readmissions, and reoperations after elective upper extremity surgery. Surgeons should consider smoking a modifiable risk factor for postoperative complications and appropriately counsel patients on outcomes and complications given the elective nature of upper extremity surgery.
- elective upper extremity surgery
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine