Effectiveness of multimodality treatment for autoimmune limbic epilepsy

Divyanshu Dubey, John Konikkara, Pradeep N. Modur, Mark Agostini, Puneet Gupta, Francy Shu, Steven Vernino

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

We evaluated the outcome of multimodality treatment in autoimmune limbic epilepsy in 3 consecutive patients (2 male and 1 female; age 33-55 years) presenting with a combination of focal non-convulsive status epilepticus, memory impairment, and psychosis. MRI showed right or bitemporal T2 or FLAIR hyperintensity. Video-EEG showed seizures of right temporo-occipital or bitemporal independent onset. Extensive workup failed to reveal infectious aetiology or an underlying tumour. However, the autoantibody panel was positive for one or more of these antibodies: anti-VGKC, anti-GABAB, anti-VGCC (P/Q, N types), and anti-GAD65. All patients received: (1) conventional antiepileptic drugs including levetiracetam, lacosamide, phenobarbital, lamotrigine, and valproate; (2) immunomodulatory therapy including methylprednisolone, plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulin; and (3) rituximab. After a 4-6-week in-hospital course, the seizures resolved in all patients but 2 had persistent memory impairment. None had treatment-related complications. At the time of last follow-up, 2-3 months later, 2 patients remained seizure-free while 2 had residual memory impairment. Our findings suggest that multimodality treatment with a combination of conventional AEDs, immunomodulatory therapy, and rituximab is effective and safe in autoimmune limbic epilepsy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)494-499
Number of pages6
JournalEpileptic Disorders
Volume16
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014

Keywords

  • Autoimmune epilepsy
  • Limbic encephalitis
  • Paraneoplastic syndrome
  • Rituximab
  • Status epilepticus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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