Effects of an inclined walking surface and balance abilities on spatiotemporal gait parameters of older adults

Richard A. Ferraro, Genevieve Pinto-Zipp, Susan Simpkins, Mary Ann Clark

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and Purpose: To date, few studies have investigated how walking patterns on inclines change in healthy older adults. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an inclined walking surface and balance abilities on various spatiotemporal gait parameters of healthy older adults. Methods: Seventy-eight self-reported independent community ambulators (mean age, 77.8 years; SD, 4.8) participated in this study. After completing the Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), all participants were asked to walk on the GaitRite on level and inclined surfaces (10° slope). Dependent t tests were used to determine statistical signifi cance between level and inclined surfaces for cadence, step length, velocity, and gait stability ratio (GSR). GSR is a measure of the degree of adaptation an individual makes to increase stability during gait derived from a ratio of cadence/velocity. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in means among the higher-risk participants (as determined by the Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index) comparing their level and incline walking patterns. The level of During incline walking a signifi cant decrease occurred in mean step length, 63.1(8.8) cm, P = ≤ 0.001, mean cadence, 111.6 (8.9) step/min, P = 0.01 and mean normalized velocity, 1.4 (0.23), P = ≤ 0.001. However, mean GSR increased on inclines, 1.62 (0.22) steps/m, P = 0.004. Main effects were evident for both walking surface and fall risk for all gait parameters tested. Results: During incline walking a signifi cant decrease occurred in mean step length, 63.1(8.8) cm, P = < 0.001, mean cadence, 111.6 (8.9) step/min, P = 0.01 and mean normalized velocity, 1.4 (0.23), P = < 0.001. However, mean GSR increased on inclines, 1.62 (0.22) steps/m, P = 0.004. Main effects were evident for both walking surface and fall risk for all gait parameters tested. Conclusions: Healthy older adults adopt a more stable gait pattern on inclines decreasing velocity and spending more time in the double support despite the increased physiological demands to perform this task. Clear changes were evident between level and incline surfaces regardless of fall risk as defi ned by 2 different objective balance measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-38
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
Volume36
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2013

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Gait
Walking
Analysis of Variance

Keywords

  • Gait parameters
  • Older adults
  • Walking on inclines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Rehabilitation

Cite this

Effects of an inclined walking surface and balance abilities on spatiotemporal gait parameters of older adults. / Ferraro, Richard A.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Simpkins, Susan; Clark, Mary Ann.

In: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, Vol. 36, No. 1, 01.2013, p. 31-38.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background and Purpose: To date, few studies have investigated how walking patterns on inclines change in healthy older adults. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an inclined walking surface and balance abilities on various spatiotemporal gait parameters of healthy older adults. Methods: Seventy-eight self-reported independent community ambulators (mean age, 77.8 years; SD, 4.8) participated in this study. After completing the Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), all participants were asked to walk on the GaitRite on level and inclined surfaces (10° slope). Dependent t tests were used to determine statistical signifi cance between level and inclined surfaces for cadence, step length, velocity, and gait stability ratio (GSR). GSR is a measure of the degree of adaptation an individual makes to increase stability during gait derived from a ratio of cadence/velocity. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in means among the higher-risk participants (as determined by the Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index) comparing their level and incline walking patterns. The level of During incline walking a signifi cant decrease occurred in mean step length, 63.1(8.8) cm, P = ≤ 0.001, mean cadence, 111.6 (8.9) step/min, P = 0.01 and mean normalized velocity, 1.4 (0.23), P = ≤ 0.001. However, mean GSR increased on inclines, 1.62 (0.22) steps/m, P = 0.004. Main effects were evident for both walking surface and fall risk for all gait parameters tested. Results: During incline walking a signifi cant decrease occurred in mean step length, 63.1(8.8) cm, P = < 0.001, mean cadence, 111.6 (8.9) step/min, P = 0.01 and mean normalized velocity, 1.4 (0.23), P = < 0.001. However, mean GSR increased on inclines, 1.62 (0.22) steps/m, P = 0.004. Main effects were evident for both walking surface and fall risk for all gait parameters tested. Conclusions: Healthy older adults adopt a more stable gait pattern on inclines decreasing velocity and spending more time in the double support despite the increased physiological demands to perform this task. Clear changes were evident between level and incline surfaces regardless of fall risk as defi ned by 2 different objective balance measures.",
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