Effects of circulatory arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass on cerebral autoregulation in neonatal swine

Jonah A. Padawer-Curry, Lindsay E. Volk, Constantine D. Mavroudis, Tiffany S. Ko, Vincent C. Morano, David R. Busch, Tami M. Rosenthal, Richard W. Melchior, Brandon C. Shade, Kellie L. Schiavo, Timothy W. Boorady, Alexander L. Schmidt, Kristen N. Andersen, Jake S. Breimann, Jharna Jahnavi, Kobina G. Mensah-Brown, Arjun G. Yodh, Christopher E. Mascio, Todd J. Kilbaugh, Daniel J. LichtBrian R. White, Wesley B. Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Cerebral autoregulation mechanisms help maintain adequate cerebral blood flow (CBF) despite changes in cerebral perfusion pressure. Impairment of cerebral autoregulation, during and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), may increase risk of neurologic injury in neonates undergoing surgery. In this study, alterations of cerebral autoregulation were assessed in a neonatal swine model probing four perfusion strategies. Methods: Neonatal swine (n = 25) were randomized to continuous deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (DH-CPB, n = 7), deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA, n = 7), selective cerebral perfusion (SCP, n = 7) at deep hypothermia, or normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (control, n = 4). The correlation coefficient (LDx) between laser Doppler measurements of CBF and mean arterial blood pressure was computed at initiation and conclusion of CPB. Alterations in cerebral autoregulation were assessed by the change between initial and final LDx measurements. Results: Cerebral autoregulation became more impaired (LDx increased) in piglets that underwent DH-CPB (initial LDx: median 0.15, IQR [0.03, 0.26]; final: 0.45, [0.27, 0.74]; p = 0.02). LDx was not altered in those undergoing DHCA (p > 0.99) or SCP (p = 0.13). These differences were not explained by other risk factors. Conclusions: In a validated swine model of cardiac surgery, DH-CPB had a significant effect on cerebral autoregulation, whereas DHCA and SCP did not. Impact: Approximately half of the patients who survive neonatal heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) experience neurodevelopmental delays. This preclinical investigation takes steps to elucidate and isolate potential perioperative risk factors of neurologic injury, such as impairment of cerebral autoregulation, associated with cardiac surgical procedures involving CPB.We demonstrate a method to characterize cerebral autoregulation during CPB pump flow changes in a neonatal swine model of cardiac surgery.Cerebral autoregulation was not altered in piglets that underwent deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) or selective cerebral perfusion (SCP), but it was altered in piglets that underwent deep hypothermic CBP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPediatric Research
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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