Effects of depression, metabolic syndrome, and cardiorespiratory fitness on mortality: Results from the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study

C. D. Rethorst, D. Leonard, C. E. Barlow, B. L. Willis, M. H. Trivedi, L. F. DeFina

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are frequently comorbid disorders that are independently associated with premature mortality. Conversely, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with reduced mortality risk. These factors may interact to impact mortality; however, their effects have not been assessed concurrently. This analysis assessed the mortality risk of comorbid depression/MetS and the effect of CRF on mortality in those with depression/MetS. Methods Prospective study of 47 702 adults in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. Mortality status was attained from the National Death Index. History of depression was determined by patient response (yes or no) to a standardized medical history questionnaire. MetS was categorized using the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. CRF was estimated from the final speed/grade of a treadmill graded exercise test. Results 13.9% reported a history of depression, 21.4% met criteria for MetS, and 3.0% met criteria for both MetS and history of depression. History of depression (HR = 1.24, p = 0.003) and MetS (HR = 1.28, p < 0.001) were independently associated with an increased mortality risk, with the greatest mortality risk among individuals with both a history of depression and MetS (HR = 1.59, p < 0.001). Higher CRF was associated with a significantly lower risk of mortality (p < 0.001) in all individuals, including those with MetS and/or a history of depression. Conclusions Those with higher levels CRF had reduced mortality risk in the context of depression/MetS. Interventions that improve CRF could have substantial impact on the health of persons with depression/MetS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2414-2420
Number of pages7
JournalPsychological Medicine
Volume47
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017

Keywords

  • Cardiorespiratory fitness
  • depression
  • metabolic syndrome
  • mortality
  • physical activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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