Efficacy of lower-extremity venous thrombolysis in the setting of congenital absence or atresia of the inferior vena cava

Suvranu Ganguli, Sanjeeva Kalva, Rahmi Oklu, T. Gregory Walker, Neil Datta, Eric F. Grabowski, Stephan Wicky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: A rare but described risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT), predominately in the young, is congenital agenesis or atresia of the inferior vena cava (IVC). The optimal management for DVT in this subset of patients is unknown. We evaluated the efficacy of pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT) followed by systemic anticoagulation in the treatment of acute lower-extremity DVT in the setting of congenital IVC agenesis or atresia. Materials and Methods: Between November of 2005 and May of 2010, six patients (three women [average age 21 years]) were referred to our department with acute lower-extremity DVT and subsequently found to have IVC agenesis or atresia on magnetic resonance imaging. A standardized technique for PCDT (the Angiojet Rheolytic Thrombectomy System followed by the EKOS Microsonic Accelerated Thrombolysis System) was used for all subjects. Successful thrombolysis was followed by systemic heparinization with transition to Coumadin or low molecular-weight heparin and compression stockings. Subjects were followed-up at 1, 3, and then every 6 months after the procedure with clinical assessment and bilateral lower-extremity venous ultrasound. Results: All PCDT procedures were technically successful. No venous stenting or angioplasty was performed. The average thrombolysis time was 28.6 h (range 12-72). Two patients experienced heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and one patient developed a self-limited knee hemarthrosis, No patients were lost to follow-up. The average length of follow-up was 25.8 ± 20.2 months (range 3.8-54.8). No incidence of recurrent DVT was identified. There were no manifestations of postthrombotic syndrome. Conclusions: PCDT followed by systemic anticoagulation and the use of compression stockings appears to be safe and effective in relatively long-term follow-up treatment of patients who present with acute DVT and IVC agenesis or atresia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1053-1058
Number of pages6
JournalCardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Volume35
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2012

Keywords

  • Inferior vena cava atresia
  • Lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis
  • Pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis
  • Postthrombotic syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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