Objective: The purpose is to provide a comprehensive review of the electrical properties tomography (EPT) technique, which was introduced to image the electrical properties (EPs) of tissue noninvasively by exploiting the measured B1 field data of MRI. Methods: We reviewed the principle of EPT, reconstruction methods, biomedical applications such as tumor imaging, and existing challenges. As a key application of EPT, the estimation of specific absorption rate (SAR) due to MRI was discussed in the background of elevated risk of tissue heating at high field. Results and Conclusion: Since the originally proposed local, homogeneous Helmholtz equation-based reconstruction algorithm, advanced EPT algorithms have emerged to address the challenges of EPT, including reconstruction error near tissue boundaries, noise sensitivity, inaccurate B1 phase estimation, and elimination of the unmeasurable Bz component, along with demonstrations of in vivo experiments. EPT techniques have been applied to investigate EPs of both healthy and pathological tissues in vivo and factors contributing to various EP value, including sodium, water content, etc. More studies are anticipated to consolidate the current findings. EPT-based subject-specific SAR estimation has led to in vivo demonstration of its feasibility and prediction of temperature increase of phantom during MRI scans merely using measured B1 data. Significance: EPT has the advantage of high resolution and practical feasibility in a clinical setup for imaging the biomedically interesting EPs of tissue in the radiofrequency range. EPT-based SAR estimation is another promising topic for predicting tissue heating of individual subjects during a specific MRI scan.
- electrical properties
- electrical properties tomography
- magnetic resonance imaging
- quantitative magnetic resonance imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering