Importance: Treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) with a quadruplet regimen consisting of a monoclonal antibody, proteasome inhibitor, immunomodulatory imide, and corticosteroid has been associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with triplet regimens. The optimal quadruplet combination, and whether this obviates the need for frontline autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), remains unknown. We evaluated elotuzumab and weekly carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (Elo-KRd) without ASCT in NDMM. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of Elo-KRd using a measurable residual disease (MRD)-adapted design in NDMM regardless of ASCT eligibility. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, single-arm, phase 2 study enrolled patients between July 2017 and February 2021. Median follow-up was 29 months. Interventions: Twelve to 24 cycles of Elo-KRd; consecutive MRD-negative results at 10-6by next-generation sequencing (NGS) after cycles 8 (C8) and 12 determined the duration of Elo-KRd. This was followed by Elo-Rd (no carfilzomib) maintenance therapy until disease progression. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the rate of stringent complete response (sCR) and/or MRD-negativity (10-5) after C8 Elo-KRd. Secondary end points included safety, rate of response, MRD status, PFS, and overall survival (OS). As an exploratory analysis, MRD was assessed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (MS) on peripheral blood samples. Results: Forty-six patients were enrolled (median age 62 years, 11 [24%] aged >70 years). Overall, 32 (70%) were White, 6 (13%) were Black, 3 (6%) were more than 1 race, and 5 (11%) were of unknown race. Thirty-three (72%) were men and 13 (28%) were women. High-risk cytogenetic abnormalities were present in 22 (48%) patients. The rate of sCR and/or MRD-negativity after C8 was 26 of 45 (58%), meeting the predefined statistical threshold for efficacy. Responses deepened over time, with the MRD-negativity (10-5) rate increasing to 70% and MS-negativity rate increasing to 65%; concordance between MRD by NGS and MS increased over time. The most common (>10%) grade 3 or 4 adverse events were lung and nonpulmonary infections (13% and 11%, respectively). There was 1 grade 5 myocardial infarction. The estimated 3-year PFS was 72% overall and 92% for patients with MRD-negativity (10-5) at C8. Conclusions and Relevance: An MRD-adapted design using elotuzumab and weekly KRd without ASCT showed a high rate of sCR and/or MRD-negativity and durable responses. This approach provides support for further evaluation of MRD-guided deescalation of therapy to decrease treatment exposure while sustaining deep responses. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02969837.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research