End-tidal carbon dioxide physiology and monitoring during resuscitation

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


This article discusses the measurement, physiology, and clinical use of end-tidal CO2, especially during low blood flow states. End-tidal CO2 concentration depends on both pulmonary blood flow and minute ventilation. CO2, if present, is helpful in confirming tracheal intubation, even in cardiac arrest. Poor blood flow during CPR is associated with a low end- tidal CO2 concentration and a poor chance for resuscitation and survival from cardiac arrest. The limitation of end-tidal CO2 monitoring is that levels are affected by perfusion, ventilation, and CO2 production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)785-798
Number of pages14
JournalAnesthesiology Clinics of North America
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 1995


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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