Background: Loco-regionally advanced lung cancer is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, but overall survival and local control remain poor. Radio-enhancing nanoparticles such as NBTXR3 activated by radiotherapy results in increased cell death and potentially an anti-tumor immune response. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)- guided injection of NBTXR3 into mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes (LN), as well as assess nanoparticle retention in the LN post-injection. Methods: Animals underwent bronchoscopy under general anesthesia with EBUS-guided injection of NBTXR3 into hilar and mediastinal LN. LN and injection volumes were calculated based on pre-injection computed tomography (CT) scans. CT scans were repeated at 5 min, 30 min, and 8 days post-injection. Blood-draws were also obtained at baseline and post-injection. Animals were then housed, monitored, and sacrificed 8 days post-injection. Necropsy was then performed with gross and histologic analysis of LN. Results: A total of 20 LN were injected in 5 pigs (4 LN per animal). Nanoparticles were retained in 100% of LN at 30 min, and 90% of LN at 8 days. Extravasation of nanoparticles was seen in 4 out of the 20 LN. There were no cases of nanoparticle embolization visible by CT in distant organs. Small air-bubbles were introduced in the targets and surrounding tissue in 3 out of 20 LN. Of note, at 8 days, none of these airbubbles were present on CT scan. There were no intra-procedural or post-procedural complications in either CT scans or necropsy findings. Pigs remained clinically stable and neither laboratory values nor necropsy showed evidence of inflammation. Conclusions: EBUS-guided injection of NBTXR3 radio-enhancing nanoparticles can be safely performed achieving a high rate of nanoparticle retention, low extravasation, and no visible nanoparticle embolization.
- Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)
- Hafnium oxide nanoparticles
- Lung cancer
- Radiation therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine