Objective. To investigate the incidence of endocrinopathies in holoprosencephaly (HPE) and correlate the severity of the endocrinopathies with the neuroanatomic abnormalities. Study design. We reviewed the histories and medical records of 117 children with HPE for endocrinopathies and related treatments. Neuro-imaging studies were graded for severity of HPE, hypothalamus non-separation, and pituitary abnormalities. Results. Diabetes insipidus (DI) occurred in 70% of patients with classic HPE. The severity of the DI correlated with the grade of HPE and hypothalamic non-separation (p <0.0001). Anterior pituitary dysfunctions were much less common. Hypothyroidism was identified in 11% of patients, hypocorticism in 7%, and growth hormone deficiency in 5%. Only one patient with middle interhemispheric variant of holoprosencephaly (MIH) had any of these disorders. Conclusions. Patients with HPE have a high incidence of DI that may be related to the failure of cleavage of hypothalamic nuclei. Anterior pituitary dysfunctions are much less common than DI.
- Diabetes insipidus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism