Migration of activated macrophages is essential for resolution of acute inflammation and the initiation of adaptive immunity. Here, we show that efficient macrophage migration in inflammatory environment depends on Mac-1 recognition of a binary complex consisting of fibrin within the provisional matrix and the protease tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator). Subsequent neutralization of tPA by its inhibitor PAI-1 enhances binding of the integrin-protease-inhibitor complex to the endocytic receptor LRP (lipoprotein receptor-related protein), triggering a switch from cell adhesion to cell detachment. Genetic inactivation of Mac-1, tPA, PAI-1 or LRP but not the protease uPA abrogates macrophage migration. The defective macrophage migration in PAI-1-deficient mice can be restored by wild-type but not by a mutant PAI-1 that does not interact with LRP. In vitro analysis shows that tPA promotes Mac-1-mediated adhesion, whereas PAI-1 and LRP facilitate its transition to cell retraction. Our results emphasize the importance of ordered transitions both temporally and spatially between individual steps of cell migration, and support a model where efficient migration of inflammatory macrophages depends on cooperation of three physiologically prominent systems (integrins, coagulation and fibrinolysis, and endocytosis).
- Integrin Mac-1
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)