Endogenous nod-factor-like signal molecules promote early somatic embryo development in Norway spruce

Julia V. Dyachok, Malgorzata Wiweger, Lennart Kenne, Sara Von Arnold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

77 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Embryogenic cultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies) are composed of pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs) and somatic embryos of various developmental stages. Auxin is important for PEM formation and proliferation. In this report we show that depletion of auxin blocks PEM development and causes large-scale cell death. Extracts of the media conditioned by embryogenic cultures stimulate development of PEM aggregates in auxin-deficient cultures. Partial characterization of the conditioning factor shows that it is a lipophilic, low-molecular-weight molecule, which is sensitive to chitinase and contains GlcNAc residues. On the basis of this information, we propose that the factor is a lipophilic chitin oligosaccharide (LCO). The amount of LCO correlates to the developmental stages of PEMs and embryos, with the highest level in the media conditioned by developmentally blocked cultures. LCO is not present in nonembryogenic cultures. Cell death, induced by withdrawal of auxin, is suppressed by extra supply of endogenous LCO or Nod factor from Rhizobium sp. NGR234. The effect can be mimicked by a chitotetraose or chitinase from Streptomyces griseus. Taken together, our data suggest that endogenous LCO acts as a signal molecule stimulating PEM and early embryo development in Norway spruce.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)523-533
Number of pages11
JournalPlant Physiology
Volume128
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2002

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Chitin
Norway
Oligosaccharides
somatic embryos
Indoleacetic Acids
Picea abies
Embryonic Development
chitin
oligosaccharides
embryogenesis
auxins
Chitinases
Conditioned Culture Medium
chitinase
Cell Death
Embryonic Structures
cell death
Streptomyces griseus
Abies
Picea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science

Cite this

Endogenous nod-factor-like signal molecules promote early somatic embryo development in Norway spruce. / Dyachok, Julia V.; Wiweger, Malgorzata; Kenne, Lennart; Von Arnold, Sara.

In: Plant Physiology, Vol. 128, No. 2, 2002, p. 523-533.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dyachok, Julia V. ; Wiweger, Malgorzata ; Kenne, Lennart ; Von Arnold, Sara. / Endogenous nod-factor-like signal molecules promote early somatic embryo development in Norway spruce. In: Plant Physiology. 2002 ; Vol. 128, No. 2. pp. 523-533.
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