Endovascular Aortic Repair in Patients of Advanced Age

Mitri K. Khoury, Micah A. Thornton, Christopher A. Heid, Jacqueline Babb, Bala Ramanan, Shirling Tsai, Melissa L. Kirkwood, Carlos H. Timaran, J. Gregory Modrall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: Treatment decisions for the elderly with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are challenging. With advancing age, the risk of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) increases while life expectancy decreases, which may nullify the benefit of EVAR. The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of EVAR on 1-year mortality in patients of advanced age. Materials and Methods: The 2003–2020 Vascular Quality Initiative Database was utilized to identify patients who underwent EVAR for AAAs. Patients were included if they were 80 years of age or older. Exclusions included non-elective surgery or missing aortic diameter data. Predicted 1-year mortality of untreated AAAs was calculated based on a validated comorbidity score that predicts 1-year mortality (Gagne Index, excluding the component associated with AAAs) plus the 1-year aneurysm-related mortality without repair. The primary outcome for the study was 1-year mortality. Results: A total of 11 829 patients met study criteria. The median age was 84 years [81, 86] with 9014 (76.2%) being male. Maximal AAA diameters were apportioned as follows: 39.6% were <5.5 cm, 28.6% were 5.5–5.9 cm, 21.3% were 6.0–6.9 cm, and 10.6% were ≥7.0 cm. The predicted 1-year mortality rate without EVAR was 11.9%, which was significantly higher than the actual 1-year mortality rate with EVAR (8.2%; p<0.001). The overall rate of perioperative MACE was 4.4% (n = 516). Patients with an aneurysm diameter <5.5cm had worse actual 1-year mortality rates with EVAR compared to predicted 1-year mortality rates without EVAR. In contrast, those with larger aneurysms (≥5.5cm) had better actual 1-year mortality rates with EVAR. The benefit from EVAR for those with Gagne Indices 2–5 was largely restricted to those with AAAs ≥ 7.0cm; whereas those with Gagne Indices 0–1 experience a survival benefit for AAAs larger than 5.5 cm. Conclusion: The current data suggest that EVAR decreases 1-year mortality rates for patients of advanced age compared to non-operative management in the elderly. However, the survival benefit is largely limited to those with Gagne Indices 0–1 with AAAs ≥ 5.5 cm and Gagne Indices 2–5 with AAAs ≥ 7.0 cm. Those of advanced age may benefit from EVAR, but realizing this benefit requires careful patient selection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Endovascular Therapy
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • aneurysm *
  • endovascular aneurysm repair
  • endovascular treatment/therapy
  • mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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