Endovascular Devices and Revascularization Techniques for Limb-Threatening Ischemia in Individuals with Diabetes

Jayer Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a rapidly worsening global epidemic over the last thirty-five years. The increased prevalence of DM has changed the phenotypic expression of atherosclerotic limb threatening ischemia (LTI), resulting in an increase in lesions in the tibial vessels. These patients are also afflicted with peripheral neuropathy, foot deformities, and medial calcification of the vasculature. In response to the evolving phenotype of atherosclerosis, newer minimally invasive tools and techniques have been developed to improve the blood supply in LTI. Arterial access, traditionally obtained from the contralateral common femoral artery (CFA) in a retrograde fashion, is now also frequently being obtained in the ipsilateral limb in an antegrade fashion. Retrograde access of the tibial, pedal, tarsal, or calf collateral vessels is also being utilized to provide a route through which wires, catheters, balloons and stents may be placed. Wires have evolved to have a variety of diameters, materials and coatings providing interventionalists with a wide variety of choices when attempting to traverse blockages in the arteries. When catheters and wires fail to traverse the lesion, newer chronic total occlusion (CTO) devices have been developed to aid in the placement of a wire across the offending lesions. Due to medial calcification associated with DM, atherectomy devices have been developed to debulk the atherosclerotic plaque within the vessel. High pressure balloon angioplasty with or without stents remain the mainstay of intervention, with drug-coated balloons (DCBs) and drug-eluting stents (DESs) now being frequently used to prevent reocclusions of atherosclerotic lesions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)904-913
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of diabetes science and technology
Volume11
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017

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Keywords

  • diabetic complications
  • diabetic ulceration
  • endovascular
  • limb-threatening ischemia
  • percutaneous catheter based intervention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine(all)
  • Biomedical Engineering

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