PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new disease but its understanding is evolving over a period of time. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology, diagnostic modalities, short and long-term goals of therapy and novel therapeutic agents. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of EoE is increasing. Upper endoscopy and biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing EoE but less invasive and more cost-effective testing has been under investigation. Scoring systems to assess symptoms, histology and endoscopic findings can distinguish between active and inactive disease. Step up therapy with 2-4-6 food elimination can result in early identification of triggering foods and reduce frequency of endoscopies. The term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) responsive eosinophilia should be avoided and PPI should be considered a therapeutic modality. Oral viscous budesonide has been more effective than fluticasone in achieving remission. Adrenal suppression should be looked for patients on swallowed steroids. IL-13 antagonists can be a promising therapy for EoE and dilation is a safe and effective treatment modality in patients with EoE but as is expected, does not decrease inflammation. SUMMARY: EoE has been increasingly recognized as a cause of food impactions and dysphagia. Less invasive methods for diagnosis and to monitor treatment response have been studied but need validation in children. Short-term treatment goals include symptomatic and histological improvement, with prevention of fibrostenotic disease the primary long-term goal. Elemental diet and empiric elimination diet appear to be successful in inducing remission. PPI and swallowed steroids cause symptomatic improvement and histological remission but relapse is common after discontinuation of therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health