Background: Esophageal adenocarcinoma is a lethal cancer with rising incidence. There are limited data in younger (<50 years) patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. We aimed to assess time trends in the incidence and outcomes of "youngonset"esophageal adenocarcinoma using a population-based database. Methods: We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 database to identify patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma between 1975 and 2015. Patients were stratified into three age strata: <50, 50 to 69, and ≥70 years. Staging was stratified as localized, regional, and distant. Trends in incidence, disease stage, and survival were assessed in three periods (1975.89, 1990.99, and 2000.2015). Univariate and multivariate models were created to identify predictors of mortality. Results: Esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence has increased in patients <50 years of age, with an annual percentage change of 2.9% (95% confidence interval, 1.4%.4.4%) from 1975 to 2015. Youngonset esophageal adenocarcinoma presented at more advanced stages (regional + distant) compared with older patients (84.9% vs. 67.3%; P < 0.01), with increasing proportion of advanced stages over the study period. These patients also experienced poorer 5-year esophageal adenocarcinoma-free survival compared with older patients (22.9%% vs. 29.6%; P < 0.01), although this finding was attenuated on stage-stratified analysis. Conclusions: Young-onset esophageal adenocarcinoma, while uncommon, is rising in incidence. Concerningly, the proportion of advanced disease continues to increase. Young-onset esophageal adenocarcinoma also presents at more advanced stages, resulting in poorer esophageal adenocarcinoma-free survival. Impact: Patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma younger than 50 years present at more advanced stages with higher esophageal adenocarcinoma-specific mortality compared with older peers. Current diagnostic and management strategies for young-onset esophageal adenocarcinoma may need to be reevaluated.
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