Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) contribute to haemodynamics, electrolyte homoeostasis and blood pressure regulation, leading to the concept that EETs can be therapeutically targeted for hypertension. In the present study, multiple structural EET analogues were synthesized based on the EET pharmacophore and vasodilator structure-activity studies. Four EET analogues with 91-119% vasodilatory activity in the isolated bovine coronary artery (EC50: 0.18-1.6 μM) were identified and studied for blood-pressure-lowering in hypertension. Two EET analogues in which the COOH group at carbon 1 of the EET pharmacophore was replaced with either an aspartic acid (EET-A) or a heterocyclic surrogate (EET-X) were administered for 14 days [10 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally (i.p.)]. Both EET-A and EET-X lowered blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and in angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension. On day 14, the mean arterial pressures in EET analogue-treated AngII-hypertensive and SHRs were 30-50 mmHg (EET-A) and 15-20 mmHg (EET-X) lower than those in vehicle-treated controls. These EET analogues (10 mg/kg per day) were further tested in AngII hypertension by administering orally in drinking water for 14 days and EET-A lowered blood pressure. Additional experiments demonstrated that EET-A inhibits epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity in cultured cortical collecting duct cells and reduced renal expression of ENaC subunits in AngII hypertension. In conclusion, we have characterized EET-A as an orally active antihypertensive EET analogue that protects vascular endothelial function and has ENaC inhibitory activity in AngII hypertension.
- Angiotensin II
- Cyp2c44-knockout mouse
- Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC channel)
- Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analogue
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