Endocrine therapy is the mainstay of treatment in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers and significantly reduces disease recurrence and breast cancer-related mortality. However, acquired resistance to therapy has been noted in nearly one-third of women treated with tamoxifen and other endocrine therapies. Mutations in the estrogen receptor have long been speculated to play a role in endocrine therapy resistance but have been rarely detected. However, recent studies utilizing next-generation sequencing on estrogen receptor-positive, metastatic clinical samples have revealed that recurrent ESR1 mutations are far more frequent than previously thought and may play an important role in acquired endocrine therapy resistance. Here we review recent advances in detection and characterization of ESR1 mutations in advanced, endocrine therapy-resistant breast cancers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research