Purpose We evaluated magnetic resonance imaging controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy as a treatment for magnetic resonance imaging defined focal prostate cancer using subsequent prostatectomy and histology as the reference standard. Materials and Methods Five men completed this pilot study, which was approved by the institutional review board. Prior to radical prostatectomy focal tumors identified by magnetic resonance imaging were treated by coagulating targeted subtotal 3-dimensional volumes of prostate tissue using magnetic resonance imaging controlled transurethral focused ultrasound. Treatment was performed with a 3 Tesla clinical magnetic resonance imaging unit combined with modified clinical planning software for high intensity focused ultrasound therapy. After prostatectomy whole mount histological sections parallel to the magnetic resonance imaging treatment planes were used to compare magnetic resonance imaging measurements with thermal damage at the cellular level and, thus, evaluate treatment and target accuracy. Results Three-dimensional target volumes of 4 to 20 cc and with radii up to 35 mm from the urethra were treated successfully. Mean ± SD temperature control accuracy at the target boundary was −1.6 ± 4.8C and the mean spatial targeting accuracy achieved was −1.5 ± 2.8 mm. Mean treatment accuracy with respect to histology was −0.4 ± 1.7 mm with all index tumors falling inside the histological outer limit of thermal injury. Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging guided transurethral ultrasound therapy is capable of generating thermal coagulation and tumor destruction in targeted 3-dimensional angular sectors out to the prostate capsule for prostate glands up to 70 cc in volume. Ultrasound parameters needed to achieve ablation at the prostate capsule were determined, providing a foundation for future studies.
- high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation
- magnetic resonance imaging
- minimally invasive surgical procedures
- prostatic neoplasms
- transurethral resection of prostate
ASJC Scopus subject areas