PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Finding blood or protein in the urine of a patient can be the source of immense anxiety. The list of diseases that result in these findings is quite long. Thus, many pediatricians believe that an exhaustive investigation is necessary to be certain of the cause. The review will discuss the major causes of hematuria and proteinuria in the pediatric population, and discuss a rational approach to the evaluation of these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of recent studies have examined the results of mass screenings of school-age children and the final outcome of examination of children with hematuria and/or proteinuria. Most children with either isolated hematuria or isolated proteinuria had benign disease processes. Children with combined hematuria and proteinuria had a higher prevalence of significant kidney disease. SUMMARY: The urinalysis combined with the history and physical examination should indicate the cause of hematuria and proteinuria in most cases. Significant renal disease can be ruled out with a minimal amount of work-up in most patients. The presence of hematuria and proteinuria together significantly increases the likelihood of significant renal disease and should prompt a referral to a specialist.
- Orthostatic proteinuria
- Renal biopsy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health