Even-skipped homeobox 1 is frequently hypermethylated in prostate cancer and predicts PSA recurrence

M. Truong, B. Yang, J. Wagner, Y. Kobayashi, V. Rajamanickam, J. Brooks, D. F. Jarrard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism in prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Given the role of even-skipped homeobox 1 (EVX1) in the regulation of multiple genes during embryogenesis, we postulated that EVX1 methylation is altered in PCa progression. Methods: Bisulphite sequencing and quantitative MethyLight were used to assess methylation in human prostate epithelial cells, four PCa cell lines, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, 35 paired tumour and tumour-associated benign tissues, and 11 normal prostate tissues. Prostate cancer cell lines were treated with 5-azacytidine (AzaC) or trichostatin A (TSA), and expression of EVX1 transcript and variants was assessed by qPCR. Hypermethylation was compared with clinicopathological features in a validation set of 58 patients using microarray. Results: Even-skipped homeobox 1 hypermethylation was observed in all four PCa cell lines and 57% of tumours. High-grade tumours exhibited increased methylation compared with intermediate-grade tumours. Even-skipped homeobox 1 expression was induced in PCa cell lines after treatment with AzaC or TSA. In the validation set, 83% of tumours were hypermethylated and hypermethylation was associated with worse recurrence-free survival. Conclusion: In this first evaluation of EVX1 methylation in human cancer, EVX1 is one of the most commonly hypermethylated genes observed in PCa and predicted treatment failure in moderate risk patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100-107
Number of pages8
JournalBritish Journal of Cancer
Volume107
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 26 2012
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • EVX1
  • methylation
  • prognosis
  • prostate cancer
  • PSA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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