Evolving fixation methods in endoscopically assisted forehead rejuvenation

Controversies and rationale

Rod J. Rohrich, Samuel J. Beran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The goals of surgical rejuvenation of the forehead include component brow manipulation, attenuation of transverse forehead rhytids, and reduction of glabellar frown lines. The endoscopic approach has proved successful in achieving these goals in selective patients while minimizing incisions and improving scalp sensation. Efficacy of endoscopic brow manipulation is dependent on (1) complete release of the brow at the supraorbital rim, (2) brow depressor muscle resection/release, and (3) tension-free fixation of the brow position until wound healing has occurred. Fixation of the brow using an endoscopic technique, unlike the open technique, is dependent on skin retraction and tension-free scalp fixation during the process of wound healing to maintain the desired brow position. Techniques for endoscopic fixation are arbitrarily divided into endogenous and exogenous. Endogenous methods include extensive galea-frontalis-occipitalis release, lateral spanning suspension sutures, external bolster fixation, anterior port skin excision, galea-frontalis advancement, cortical tunnels, and tissue adhesives. Exogenous techniques include internal screw or plate fixation, Mitek anchor fixation, external screw fixation, and absorbable K-wires. This article provides a goal-oriented review of these evolving techniques and a rationale for the use of fixation methods in endoscopically assisted forehead rejuvenation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1575-1584
Number of pages10
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Volume100
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1997

Fingerprint

Rejuvenation
Forehead
Scalp
Wound Healing
Tissue Adhesives
Skin
Sutures
Suspensions
Muscles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Evolving fixation methods in endoscopically assisted forehead rejuvenation : Controversies and rationale. / Rohrich, Rod J.; Beran, Samuel J.

In: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 100, No. 6, 11.1997, p. 1575-1584.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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