With advances in molecular biologic and genomic technology, detailed molecular mechanisms for development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have surfaced. Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) no longer represents an end stage, with many emerging therapeutic agents approved as effective in prolonging survival of patients from either pre- or post-docetaxel stage. Given tumor heterogeneity in patients, a one-size-fits-all theory for curative therapy remains questionable. With the support of evidence from continuing clinical trials, each treatment modality has gradually been found suitable for selective best-fit patients: e.g., new androgen synthesis inhibitor arbiraterone, androgen receptor signaling inhibitor enzalutamide, sipuleucel-T immunotherapy, new taxane carbazitaxel, calcium-mimetic radium-223 radiopharmaceutical agent. Moreover, several emerging immunomodulating agents and circulating tumor cell enumeration and analysis showed promise in animal or early phase clinical trials. While the era of personalized therapy for CRPC patients is still in infancy, optimal therapeutic agents and their sequencing loom not far in the future.
- Castration-resistant prostate cancer
- Personalized cancer therapy
- Prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)