Exaggerated pressor and sympathetic responses to stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region and exercise pressor reflex in type 2 diabetic rats

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Abstract

The cardiovascular responses to exercise are potentiated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the underlying mechanisms causing this abnormality remain unknown. Central command (CC) and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) are known to contribute significantly to cardiovascular control during exercise. Thus these neural signals are viable candidates for the generation of the abnormal circulatory regulation in this disease. We hypothesized that augmentations in CC as well as EPR function contribute to the heightened cardiovascular responses during exercise in T2DM. To test this hypothesis, changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in response to electrical stimulation of mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), a putative component of the central command pathway, and activation of the EPR, evoked by electrically induced hindlimb muscle contraction, were examined in decerebrate animals. Sprague-Dawley rats were given either a normal diet (control) or a high-fat diet (14–16 wk) in combination with two low doses (35 mg/kg week 1, 25 mg/kg week 2) of streptozotocin (T2DM). The changes in MAP and RSNA responses to MLR stimulation were significantly greater in T2DM compared with control (2,739 ± 123 vs. 1,298 ± 371 mmHg/s, 6,326 ± 1,621 vs. 1,390 ± 277%/s, respectively, P < 0.05). Similarly, pressor and sympathetic responses to activation of the EPR in diabetic animals were significantly augmented compared with control animals (436 ± 74 vs. 134 ± 44 mmHg/s, 645 ± 135 vs. 139 ± 65%/s, respectively, P < 0.05). These findings provide the first evidence that CC and the EPR may generate the exaggerated rise in sympathetic activity and blood pressure during exercise in T2DM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)R270-R279
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume317
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019

Fingerprint

Reflex
Exercise
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Arterial Pressure
Kidney
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus
High Fat Diet
Hindlimb
Muscle Contraction
Electric Stimulation
Sprague Dawley Rats
Diet
Blood Pressure

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Central command
  • Exercise pressor reflex
  • Mesencephalic locomotor region
  • Sympathetic nerve activity
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "Exaggerated pressor and sympathetic responses to stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region and exercise pressor reflex in type 2 diabetic rats",
abstract = "The cardiovascular responses to exercise are potentiated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the underlying mechanisms causing this abnormality remain unknown. Central command (CC) and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) are known to contribute significantly to cardiovascular control during exercise. Thus these neural signals are viable candidates for the generation of the abnormal circulatory regulation in this disease. We hypothesized that augmentations in CC as well as EPR function contribute to the heightened cardiovascular responses during exercise in T2DM. To test this hypothesis, changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in response to electrical stimulation of mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), a putative component of the central command pathway, and activation of the EPR, evoked by electrically induced hindlimb muscle contraction, were examined in decerebrate animals. Sprague-Dawley rats were given either a normal diet (control) or a high-fat diet (14–16 wk) in combination with two low doses (35 mg/kg week 1, 25 mg/kg week 2) of streptozotocin (T2DM). The changes in MAP and RSNA responses to MLR stimulation were significantly greater in T2DM compared with control (2,739 ± 123 vs. 1,298 ± 371 mmHg/s, 6,326 ± 1,621 vs. 1,390 ± 277{\%}/s, respectively, P < 0.05). Similarly, pressor and sympathetic responses to activation of the EPR in diabetic animals were significantly augmented compared with control animals (436 ± 74 vs. 134 ± 44 mmHg/s, 645 ± 135 vs. 139 ± 65{\%}/s, respectively, P < 0.05). These findings provide the first evidence that CC and the EPR may generate the exaggerated rise in sympathetic activity and blood pressure during exercise in T2DM.",
keywords = "Blood pressure, Central command, Exercise pressor reflex, Mesencephalic locomotor region, Sympathetic nerve activity, Type 2 diabetes",
author = "Kim, {Han Kyul} and Norio Hotta and Rie Ishizawa and Iwamoto, {Gary A} and Wanpen Vongpatanasin and Mitchell, {Jere H} and Smith, {Scott A} and Masaki Mizuno",
year = "2019",
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T1 - Exaggerated pressor and sympathetic responses to stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region and exercise pressor reflex in type 2 diabetic rats

AU - Kim, Han Kyul

AU - Hotta, Norio

AU - Ishizawa, Rie

AU - Iwamoto, Gary A

AU - Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

AU - Mitchell, Jere H

AU - Smith, Scott A

AU - Mizuno, Masaki

PY - 2019/8/1

Y1 - 2019/8/1

N2 - The cardiovascular responses to exercise are potentiated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the underlying mechanisms causing this abnormality remain unknown. Central command (CC) and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) are known to contribute significantly to cardiovascular control during exercise. Thus these neural signals are viable candidates for the generation of the abnormal circulatory regulation in this disease. We hypothesized that augmentations in CC as well as EPR function contribute to the heightened cardiovascular responses during exercise in T2DM. To test this hypothesis, changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in response to electrical stimulation of mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), a putative component of the central command pathway, and activation of the EPR, evoked by electrically induced hindlimb muscle contraction, were examined in decerebrate animals. Sprague-Dawley rats were given either a normal diet (control) or a high-fat diet (14–16 wk) in combination with two low doses (35 mg/kg week 1, 25 mg/kg week 2) of streptozotocin (T2DM). The changes in MAP and RSNA responses to MLR stimulation were significantly greater in T2DM compared with control (2,739 ± 123 vs. 1,298 ± 371 mmHg/s, 6,326 ± 1,621 vs. 1,390 ± 277%/s, respectively, P < 0.05). Similarly, pressor and sympathetic responses to activation of the EPR in diabetic animals were significantly augmented compared with control animals (436 ± 74 vs. 134 ± 44 mmHg/s, 645 ± 135 vs. 139 ± 65%/s, respectively, P < 0.05). These findings provide the first evidence that CC and the EPR may generate the exaggerated rise in sympathetic activity and blood pressure during exercise in T2DM.

AB - The cardiovascular responses to exercise are potentiated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the underlying mechanisms causing this abnormality remain unknown. Central command (CC) and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) are known to contribute significantly to cardiovascular control during exercise. Thus these neural signals are viable candidates for the generation of the abnormal circulatory regulation in this disease. We hypothesized that augmentations in CC as well as EPR function contribute to the heightened cardiovascular responses during exercise in T2DM. To test this hypothesis, changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in response to electrical stimulation of mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), a putative component of the central command pathway, and activation of the EPR, evoked by electrically induced hindlimb muscle contraction, were examined in decerebrate animals. Sprague-Dawley rats were given either a normal diet (control) or a high-fat diet (14–16 wk) in combination with two low doses (35 mg/kg week 1, 25 mg/kg week 2) of streptozotocin (T2DM). The changes in MAP and RSNA responses to MLR stimulation were significantly greater in T2DM compared with control (2,739 ± 123 vs. 1,298 ± 371 mmHg/s, 6,326 ± 1,621 vs. 1,390 ± 277%/s, respectively, P < 0.05). Similarly, pressor and sympathetic responses to activation of the EPR in diabetic animals were significantly augmented compared with control animals (436 ± 74 vs. 134 ± 44 mmHg/s, 645 ± 135 vs. 139 ± 65%/s, respectively, P < 0.05). These findings provide the first evidence that CC and the EPR may generate the exaggerated rise in sympathetic activity and blood pressure during exercise in T2DM.

KW - Blood pressure

KW - Central command

KW - Exercise pressor reflex

KW - Mesencephalic locomotor region

KW - Sympathetic nerve activity

KW - Type 2 diabetes

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